THE USE OF BRAINSTORMING IN INCREASING STUDENT’S MOTIVATION IN SPEAKING ABILITY IN AL-MUHIBBIN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADE VIII
by: Iin Nurkhasanah
- I. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
English is one of the most important subjects learned in almost all school in every country including Indonesia. The reason why it is important is that because English become an international language. People use English around the world. It is studied seriously because the language is becoming second language in almost all countries. People consciously take many courses and education of English because of an important of the language.
Many sectors in our daily life need English as the prerequisites. All job application will not be fulfilled without capability of English. People certainly realize and concern about the importance of English since mostly the widespread of the issue had English to become important object to be searched and mastered.
English is widely used in mass media and oral communication as means of exchanging information, including science and technology reasons. Harmer (2000:1) stated that English has become a lingua franca. It means that English is a means for people who have different language to communicate orally or written form. They use English to enable them to communicate and transfer information.
This paper highlights (1) The Use of brainstorming, (2) students’ motivation and (3) Speaking ability
1.2 Problem of the study
- What technique use in improving student’s speaking skill?
- How the use of brainstorming in correct procedure so that students are interesting to engaged with.
1.3 Objective of the study
- To know what technique use to improve students’ speaking skill.
- To know how to apply brainstorming in the class correctly.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research is intended to offer an alternative technique in enhancing students’ speaking comprehension achievement since a good teacher of English is required to train the students by applying good strategies. The use of brainstorming can make the student feel convenient and confident to speak because the topic is already discussed or they have known before.
Based on the background of the study above, the hypotheses will be formulated the null hypothesis (Ho) and alternative hypothesis (Ha) as follows.
H0: There is no significant difference in average score in speaking between students who are taught using brainstorming technique and conventional technique.
H1: There is no significant difference in average score in speaking between students who are taught using brainstorming technique and conventional technique.
H0: There is no significant improvement in average score in speaking between students who are taught speaking using brainstorming technique.
H2 : There is a significant improvement in average score in speaking between students who are taught speaking using brainstorming technique.
H0 : There is no significant improvement in average score in speaking between students’ who are already taught speaking using brainstorming technique.
H3 : There is a significant improvement in average score in speaking between students’ who are already taught speaking using brainstorming technique.
H0 : There is no significant difference in average score in speaking between students’ after taught speaking using brainstorming technique.
H4 : There is no significant difference in average score in speaking between students’ after being taught speaking using brainstorming technique.
H0 : There is no significant difference in average score in speaking between students’ after being taught speaking using brainstorming technique.
H5 : There is a significant difference in average score in speaking between students’ after being taught speaking using brainstorming technique and conventional technique.
H0 : There is no significant difference in average score in speaking between students who are being taught speaking using brainstorming and conventional technique.
H6 : There is a significant difference in average score in speaking between students who are being taught speaking using brainstorming and conventional technique.
H0 : There is no interaction effect of using brainstorming technique and conventional technique towards students’ speaking achievements.
H7 : There is no interaction effect of using brainstorming technique and conventional technique towards students’ speaking achievements.
1.6 The Criteria for Testing Hypothesis
In this study, the hypothesis that has been formulated before, the writer used the critical value of t-table at the significance 0.05 is with n=30. If the value of t-obtained is higher than value of t-table, the alternative hypothesis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 will be accepted and the null hypothesis will be rejected. And if the value of t-table is higher than value of t-obtained, they null hypothesis will be accepted and the alternative hypothesis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 will be rejected. In variance analysis, at the significance 0.05 is with n=30.
- II. LITERATURE REVIEW
The Use of Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem. In 1953 the method was popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in a book called Applied Imagination. Osborn proposed that groups could double their creative output with brainstorming.
Oxford defined that brainstorming is a way of making a group of people all think about something at the same time, often in order to solve a problem or to create good ideas.
Brainstorming is the name given to a situation when a group of people meet to generate new ideas around a specific area of interest. Using rules which remove inhibitions, people are able to think more freely and move into new areas of thought and so create numerous new ideas and solutions. The participants shout out ideas as they occur to them and then build on the ideas raised by others. All the ideas are noted down and are not criticized. Only when the brainstorming session is over are the ideas evaluated.
The other meaning of brainstorming is To brainstorm is to use a set of specific rules and techniques which encourage and spark off new ideas which would never have happened under normal circumstances. So there you have it: brainstorming will help you come up with new ideas. And not only will you come up with new ideas but you will do so with surprisingly little effort. Brainstorming makes the generation of new ideas easy and is a tried-and-tested process. Exactly what you apply brainstorming techniques to depends on what you want to achieve. You can apply them to develop new products, services and processes in your job, or you can apply them to develop your personal life.
There are two models of brainstorming
- Traditional Brainstorming
The normal view of brainstorming is where a group of people sit in a room and shout out ideas as they occur to them. They are told to lose their inhibitions and that no ideas will be judged so that people are free to shout out any ideas at all without feeling uncomfortable. People should build on the ideas called out by other participants. The purpose of this is to gain as many ideas as possible for later analysis. Out of the many ideas suggested there will be some of great value. Because of the free-thinking environment, the session will help promote radical new ideas which break free from normal ways of thinking.
- Advanced Brainstorming
The model we propose is an extension of the traditional brainstorming scenario and makes the whole process easier and more effective. Advanced brainstorming builds on the current methods of brainstorming to produce more original ideas in a more efficient way. Specialized techniques, better processes and better awareness, combined with new technologies make traditional brainstorming a less frustrating process. Most of the problems associated with traditional brainstorming disappear as a more effective process is used. Keep on reading for more details of how you can do advanced brainstorming for great profit to you and your organization.
Advanced brainstorming uses:
- new processes and new training to reduce inhibitions
- creative and lateral thinking techniques
- new materials for stimulation and recording ideas
Motivation in learning English
Motivation is the driving force which help causes us to achieve goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality.
There are many things instructors can do to prevent glazed-over eyes or nodding heads in a classroom. Faculty can help maintain and increase student motivation by
- Establishing challenging, but not impossible goals for students. Offering intellectual tasks that are a “reach” can spur learners to higher levels of success.
- Helping students set their own goals for learning that are ambitious, but realistic and achievable. Research shows that, if given a choice, people will choose a challenging, though not daunting task over one that is too hard – or too easy. While it’s often helpful to offer an easy question first in a discussion or on an exam, it’s counterproductive to make everything too easy.
- Being clear, specific, and concrete in explaining course material and in giving examples.
- Organizing student learning; for example, consciously building new material on facts or concepts that students already know.
- Offering positive, consistent, and timely feedback – which doesn’t have to mean grades. A brief comment – if sincere – may suffice.
Engaging students in a variety of teaching activities, such as role-playing, problem-solving, or any kind of student interaction, especially if these activities can relate the course to students’ interests and skills. The key here is activity, as passivity can be an impediment to feeling motivated.
Speaking means to be able to use language (Oxford, 1986:6). According to Finnociaro and Brumfit (1983:1440) in Nurkhasanah speaking is one of the important language skills that have to be mastered by language learners. They consider that speaking skill is a complex skill, which involves the knowledge of sound, vocabulary and cultural sub-system of English language.
It means that the knowledge from pronunciation, structure, vocabulary and cultural system of English system are important and much needed for communicating to society.
According to Yorkey, speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously. The teacher role is becoming important for students later. There are many keys to support speaking skill by listening cassette, watching tv, watching film, practicing with foreigners, practicing with partners.
Dobson is quoted by Fita Krisnawati in her thesis. Speaking is an ability when students can judge how accurate their selling and how they use the sentences they have learned and it merely different when it is conveyed to writing skill, they usually produce rather mistakes but in free speaking, they have tendency to make mistakes that they wouldn’t make in writing 2.
Speaking is easy, but conveys the speaking in to meaning is not easy. By having some experts’ statement and some guidance, the writer believes that speaking will easier when someone else opens a certain topic or do the brainstorming. Brainstorming can motivate student to speak because the way of brainstorming work is interesting. It can be compared to students who have no any topic to be talked, they will keep silent because they don’t know what should be talked, the feel afraid to speak, the afraid of making mistakes etc. The use of brainstorming is a good idea to convey students in speaking English everyday.
Nurkhasanah, iin.the effectiveness of teaching speaking through debate activity of eFAC course in Intermediate level.2007
Richard C Yorkey,”Study skill for students of English as a second language: New York :MC.Grow Hill, Inc,1990),
M Dobson, Teaching for skill,Teaching English Forum,XXIV January 1, 1989 p.30.quoted by Krisnawati in unpublished thesis
Jeffrey Baumgartner, the step by step guided by brainstorming.1997, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006 bwiti BVBA Erps-Kwerps, Belgium
www.brainstorming.co.uk ©1997-2008 Infinite Innovations Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang Akan Mengikut Mayat Ada Tiga Perkara yaitu:
Ada Dua Yang Kembali Dan Satu akan Tinggal Bersamanya iaitu:
1. Keluarga dan Hartanya Akan Kembali
2. Sementara Amalnya Akan Tinggal Bersamanya.
MAKA KETIKA ROH MENINGGALKAN JASAD
Terdengarlah Suara Dari Langit Memekik, ‘Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan..
• – Apakah Kau Yang Telah Meninggalkan Dunia, Atau Dunia Yang Meninggalkanmu?
• – Apakah Kau Yang Telah Mengumpul Harta Kekayaan, Atau Kekayaan Yang Telah Mengumpulmu?
• – Apakah Kau Yang Telah Menumpuk Dunia, Atau Dunia Yang Telah Menumpukmu?
• – Apakah Kau Yang Telah Mengubur Dunia, Atau Dunia Yang Telah Menguburmu?’
KETIKA MAYAT TERGELETAK AKAN DIMANDIKAN
Terdengar Dari Langit Suara Memekik, ‘Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan…
• – Mana Badanmu Yang Dahulunya Kuat, Mengapa Kini Terkulai Lemah?
• – Mana Lisanmu Yang Dahulunya Fasih, Mengapa Kini Bungkam Tak Bersuara?
• – Mana Telingamu Yang Dahulunya Mendengar, Mengapa Kini Tuli Dari Seribu Bahasa?
• – Mana Sahabat-Sahabatmu Yang Dahulunya Setia, Mengapa Kini Ghaib Tak Bersuara?
KETIKA MAYAT SIAP DIKAFANKAN
Suara Dari Langit Terdengar Memekik,’Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan
• – Berbahagialah Apabila Kau Bersahabat Dengan RedhaMU
• – Celakalah Apabila Kau Bersahabat Dengan Murka Allah
• – Kini Kau Tengah Berada Dalam Sebuah Perjalanan Nun Jauh Tanpa Bekal
• – Kau Telah Keluar Dari Rumahmu Dan Tidak Akan Kembali Selamanya
• – Kini Kau Tengah Safar Pada Sebuah Tujuan Yang Penuh Pertanyaan.’
KETIKA JENAZAH DI USUNG
Terdengar Dari Langit Suara Memekik, ‘Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan..
• – Berbahagialah Apabila Amalmu Adalah Kebajikan
• – Berbahagialah Apabila Matimu Diawali Taubat
• – Berbahagialah Apabila Hidupmu Penuh Dengan Taat.’
KETIKA MAYAT SIAP DISEMBAHYANGKAN
Terdengar dari Langit Suara Memekik, ‘Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan..
• – Setiap Pekerjaan Yang Kau Lakukan Kelak Kau Lihat Hasilnya Di Akhirat
• – Apabila Baik Maka Kau Akan Melihatnya Baik
• – Apabila Buruk, Kau Akan Melihatnya Buruk.’
KETIKA MAYAT DIBARINGKAN DI LIANG LAHAD
terdengar Suara Memekik Dari Langit,’Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan…
• Apa Yang Telah Kau Siapkan Dari Rumahmu Yang Luas Di Dunia Untuk Kehidupan Yang Penuh Gelap Gulita Di Sini
Wahai Fulan Anak Si Fulan…
• – Dahulu Kau Tertawa, Kini Dalam Perutku Kau Menangis
• – Dahulu Kau Bergembira,Kini Dalam Perutku Kau Berduka
• – Dahulu Kau Bertutur Kata, Kini Dalam Perutku Kau Bungkam Seribu Bahasa.’
KETIKA SEMUA MANUSIA MENINGGALKANNYA SENDIRIAN
Allah Berkata Kepadanya, ‘Wahai Hamba-Ku…. .
• Kini Kau Tinggal Seorang Diri
• Tiada Teman Dan Tiada Kerabat
• Di Sebuah Tempat Kecil, Sempit Dan Gelap..
• Mereka Pergi Meninggalkanmu. … Seorang Diri
• Padahal, Kerana Mereka Kau Pernah Langgar Perintahku
• Hari Ini,…. Akan Kutunjukan Kepadamu
• Kasih Sayang-Ku
• Yang Akan Takjub Seisi Alam
• Aku Akan Menyayangimu
• Lebih Dari Kasih Sayang Seorang Ibu Pada Anaknya’.
Kepada Jiwa-Jiwa Yang Tenang Allah Berfirman , ‘Wahai Jiwa Yang Tenang
• Kembalilah Kepada Tuhanmu
• Dengan Hati Yang Puas Lagi Diredhai-Nya
• Maka Masuklah Ke Dalam Jamaah Hamba-Hamba- Ku
• Dan Masuklah Ke Dalam Jannah-Ku’
-kematian akan datang tidak cepat atau lambat walau sesaat,oleh itu,bersedialah-
sumber: Mencintaimu karena Allah
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The 99 names of OUR CREATOR
1 Allah (الله) The Greatest Name
2 Ar-Rahman (الرحمن) The All-Compassionate
3 Ar-Rahim (الرحيم) The All-Merciful
4 Al-Malik (الملك) The Absolute Ruler
5 Al-Quddus (القدوس) The Pure One
6 As-Salam (السلام) The Source of Peace
7 Al-Mu’min (المؤمن) The Inspirer of Faith
8 Al-Muhaymin (المهيمن) The Guardian
9 Al-Aziz (العزيز) The Victorious
10 Al-Jabbar (الجبار) The Compeller
11 Al-Mutakabbir (المتكبر) The Greatest
12 Al-Khaliq (الخالق) The Creator
13 Al-Bari’ (البارئ) The Maker of Order
14 Al-Musawwir (المصور) The Shaper of Beauty
15 Al-Ghaffar (الغفار) The Forgiving
16 Al-Qahhar (القهار) The Subduer
17 Al-Wahhab (الوهاب) The Giver of All
18 Ar-Razzaq (الرزاق) The Sustainer
19 Al-Fattah (الفتاح) The Opener
20 Al-`Alim (العليم) The Knower of All
21 Al-Qabid (القابض) The Constrictor
22 Al-Basit (الباسط) The Reliever
23 Al-Khafid (الخافض) The Abaser
24 Ar-Rafi (الرافع) The Exalter
25 Al-Mu’izz (المعز) The Bestower of Honors
26 Al-Mudhill (المذل) The Humiliator
27 As-Sami (السميع) The Hearer of All
28 Al-Basir (البصير) The Seer of All
29 Al-Hakam (الحكم) The Judge One
30 Al-`Adl (العدل) The Just
31 Al-Latif (اللطيف) The Subtle One
32 Al-Khabir (الخبير) The All-Aware
33 Al-Halim (الحليم) The Forbearing
34 Al-Azim (العظيم) The Magnificent
35 Al-Ghafur (الغفور) The Forgiver and Hider of Faults
36 Ash-Shakur (الشكور) The Rewarder of Thankfulness
37 Al-Ali (العلى) The Highest
38 Al-Kabir (الكبير) The Greatest
39 Al-Hafiz (الحفيظ) The Preserver
40 Al-Muqit (المقيت) The Nourisher
41 Al-Hasib (الحسيب) The Accounter
42 Al-Jalil (الجليل) The Mighty
43 Al-Karim (الكريم) The Generous
44 Ar-Raqib (الرقيب) The Watchful One
45 Al-Mujib (المجيب) The Responder to Prayer
46 Al-Wasi (الواسع) The All-Comprehending
47 Al-Hakim (الحكيم) The Perfectly Wise
48 Al-Wadud (الودود) The Loving One
49 Al-Majid (المجيد) The Majestic One
50 Al-Ba’ith (الباعث) The Resurrector
51 Ash-Shahid (الشهيد) The Witness
52 Al-Haqq (الحق) The Truth
53 Al-Wakil (الوكيل) The Trustee
54 Al-Qawiyy (القوى) The Possessor of All Strength
55 Al-Matin (المتين) The Forceful One
56 Al-Waliyy (الولى) The Governor
57 Al-Hamid (الحميد) The Praised One
58 Al-Muhsi (المحصى) The Appraiser
59 Al-Mubdi’ (المبدئ) The Originator
60 Al-Mu’id (المعيد) The Restorer
61 Al-Muhyi (المحيى) The Giver of Life
62 Al-Mumit (المميت) The Taker of Life
63 Al-Hayy (الحي) The Ever Living One
64 Al-Qayyum (القيوم) The Self-Existing One 65 Al-Wajid (الواجد) The Finder
66 Al-Majid (الماجد) The Glorious
67 Al-Wahid (الواحد) The One, the All Inclusive, The Indivisible
68 As-Samad (الصمد) The Satisfier of All Needs
69 Al-Qadir (القادر) The All Powerful
70 Al-Muqtadir (المقتدر) The Creator of All Power
71 Al-Muqaddim (المقدم) The Expediter
72 Al-Mu’akhkhir (المؤخر) The Delayer
73 Al-Awwal (الأول) The First
74 Al-Akhir (الأخر) The Last
75 Az-Zahir (الظاهر) The Manifest One
76 Al-Batin (الباطن) The Hidden One
77 Al-Wali (الوالي) The Protecting Friend
78 Al-Muta’ali (المتعالي) The Supreme One
79 Al-Barr (البر) The Doer of Good
80 At-Tawwab (التواب) The Guide to Repentance
81 Al-Muntaqim (المنتقم) The Avenger
82 Al-’Afuww (العفو) The Forgiver
83 Ar-Ra’uf (الرؤوف) The Clement
84 Malik-al-Mulk (مالك الملك) The Owner of All
85 Dhu-al-Jalal wa-al-Ikram (ذو الجلال و الإكرام) The Lord of Majesty and Bounty
86 Al-Muqsit (المقسط) The Equitable One
87 Al-Jami’ (الجامع) The Gatherer
88 Al-Ghani (الغنى) The Rich One
89 Al-Mughni (المغنى) The Enricher
90 Al-Mani’(المانع) The Preventer of Harm
91 Ad-Darr (الضار) The Creator of The Harmful
92 An-Nafi’ (النافع) The Creator of Good
93 An-Nur (النور) The Light
94 Al-Hadi (الهادي) The Guide
95 Al-Badi (البديع) The Originator
96 Al-Baqi (الباقي) The Everlasting One
97 Al-Warith (الوارث) The Inheritor of All
98 Ar-Rashid (الرشيد) The Righteous Teacher
99 As-Sabur (الصبور) The Patient One
لآ إلـ‗__‗ـه إلآ اللـ‗__‗ـه مُحمـ‗__‗ـدٌ رسـ‗__‗ـول اللـ‗__‗ـه
أشهد أن لا إلـﮧ إلاَّ اللـَّـﮧ
……و أشهد أن مُـכـمَّــدْ رَسُــولُ اللـَّـﮧ
Have you ever heard about brainstorming? may be at school it s very familiar. What is the function of brainstorming? Brain storming is kinds of activity of activating prior knowledge. Some expert do some research about that . I will also do research about this topic for my Thesis. My Hypothesis is positive. The students who had given the brainstorming activity will have high motivation in speaking than students who do not give anything ( or can be said just get the conventional teaching).
To run a group brainstorming session effectively, do the following:
- Find a comfortable meeting environment, and set it up ready for the session.
- Appoint one person to record the ideas that come from the session. These should be noted in a format than everyone can see and refer to. Depending on the approach you want to use, you may want to record ideas on flip charts, whiteboards, or computers with data projectors.
- If people aren’t already used to working together, consider using an appropriate warm-up exercise or ice-breaker.
- Define the problem you want solved clearly, and lay out any criteria to be met. Make it clear that that the objective of the meeting is to generate as many ideas as possible.
- Give people plenty of time on their own at the start of the session to generate as many ideas as possible.
- Ask people to give their ideas, making sure that you give everyone a fair opportunity to contribute.
- Encourage people to develop other people’s ideas, or to use other ideas to create new ones.
- Encourage an enthusiastic, uncritical attitude among members of the group. Try to get everyone to contribute and develop ideas, including the quietest members of the group.
- Ensure that no one criticizes or evaluates ideas during the session. Criticism introduces an element of risk for group members when putting forward an idea. This stifles creativity and cripples the free running nature of a good brainstorming session.
- Let people have fun brainstorming. Encourage them to come up with as many ideas as possible, from solidly practical ones to wildly impractical ones. Welcome creativity!
- Ensure that no train of thought is followed for too long. Make sure that you generate a sufficient number of different ideas, as well as exploring individual ideas in detail.
- In a long session, take plenty of breaks so that people can continue to concentrate.
Taking Your Brainstorming Further…
If you’re still not getting the ideas you want, try using these approaches to increase the number of ideas that you generate:
- The Stepladder Technique – This improves the contribution of quieter members of the group, by introducing ideas one person at a time.
- Brainwriting – Brainwriting uses a written approach to brainstorming to generate and develop ideas. This helps you get ideas from all individuals, and develop these ideas in depth.
- Brain-netting – This is similar to Brainwriting, but uses an electronic document stored on a central server.
- The Crawford’s Slip Approach – The Crawford’s Slip Approach helps you get plenty of ideas from all participants in your session, and gives you a view of the popularity of each idea.
The techniques below help you in specific brainstorming situations:
- Reverse Brainstorming – This is useful for improving a product or service.
- Starbursting – Starbursting helps you brainstorm the questions you need to ask to evaluate a proposal.
- Charette Procedure – This procedure helps you brainstorm effectively with large groups of people. (Conventional brainstorming is cumbersome and increasingly ineffective when more than 10 to 12 people are involved.)
- Round-Robin Brainstorming – This technique helps you ensure that people will contribute great ideas without being influenced by others in the group.
(adapted) from: http://www.mindtool.com
to all my friends who wants to share your writing, join on my web or by sending me email. u can also join my FB in Iin Nurkhasanah. we can share our knowledge here. hopefully will be have the advantages for people around the world